Baseball and softball are extremely popular
among America's youth. Injuries are common because of the large number of
athletes participating. While most injuries are acute, there are specific
overuse injuries that commonly affect young ball players. Most of these injuries
can be prevented.
The following is information from the American
Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) about how to prevent baseball and softball injuries.
Also included is an overview of common injuries.
General treatment for acute injuries
Rest, ice, compression, and elevation is the
first step in treating an acute injury accompanied by pain and swelling.
Athletes should stop playing and apply ice directly to the injured area for
20 minutes. After icing, an ACE bandage can be used to limit swelling. The
injured area should be raised above the heart to limit swelling.
Shoulder impingement is an
overuse injury that causes achy pain on the front or side of the shoulder.
The pain is felt most when the arm is overhead or extended to the side.
Shoulder impingement is common in young athletes with weak upper back and
shoulder muscles. Off-season stretching of the back of the shoulder and
strengthening of the shoulder blade and core muscles can help prevent these
Baseball pitchers and other high-volume
throwers (for example, catchers) are at risk for Little League
shoulder, an irritation to the growth plate in the humerus bone
of the shoulder. Limiting the number of pitches a player can throw during a
practice or game can help prevent these types of overuse injuries (pitch
count guidelines based on age are published by USA Baseball). Any athlete
who has shoulder pain for more than 7 to 10 days should see a doctor.
Elbow injuries are very common in baseball
players, especially pitchers, and include Little League
elbow (irritation of the growth plate of the humerus bone of
the elbow). As with shoulder injuries, limiting the number of pitches a
player throws during a practice or game can help prevent overuse
Ankle injuries often occur as a result of
uneven playing fields or sliding into bases, or from improper
rehabilitation/protection after injury. Fields should be well maintained and
breakaway bases should be used. Use of ankle braces and ankle exercises that
strengthen and improve balance of the ankles may prevent repeat injury.
Eye injuries typically occur from contact
with the ball, bat, or a finger. Any injury that affects vision or is
associated with swelling or blood inside the eye should be evaluated by an
ophthalmologist. Athletes should also stay a safe distance away from any
player swinging a bat or playing catch. The AAP recommends that children
involved in organized sports wear appropriate protective eyewear.
Athletes who are dizzy or confused, or
complain of a headache, are most likely suffering from heat exhaustion or
heat stroke. Any athlete suspected of having heat illness should immediately
be removed from play, cooled by any means available, and transported by
emergency medical services (call 911).
Heat-related illnesses can be prevented when
athletes are given adequate time to get used to exercising in the heat
(usually takes 1 to 2 weeks). Drinking water or a sports drink before,
during, and after training, as well as avoiding stimulants including
caffeine, can also help.
Sudden death as a result of a significant
impact to the chest is known as commotio cordis. The usual cause is impact
from a baseball, lacrosse ball, or puck, or a direct blow in football or
hockey. Recognition and resuscitation alone are rarely successful; however,
if available an automated external defibrillator can successfully
resuscitate athletes with this condition.
Baseball and softball injuries can be prevented
when fair play is encouraged and the rules of the game are enforced. Also,
athletes should use the appropriate equipment and safety guidelines should
always be followed.